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|Principal Issues | |Field |Definition | |Schools Of Thought |Key Contributors | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |Metaphysics |The study of being: The nature |Plato developed the theory of |Monism |Pythagoras |Metaphysics: Questions about the | | |of being and what |forms and introduced skepticism |Materialism |Parmenides |nature of reality | | |characteristics make up being |about reality. Aristotle coined |Idealism |Heraclitus |Nature of ultimate reality | | | |the word metaphysics.
Augustine |Dualism |Zeno |Permanence and Change | | | |reconciled Platonism with | |Empedocles |Appearance and reality | | | |Christianity. Aquinas reconciled| |Anaxagoras |Nature of human reality | | | |Aristotle with Christianity. The| |Plato |Mind-body problems | | | |Scientific Revolution | |Aristotle |Freedom and determinism | | | |Intelligent design versus | |Plotinus | | | | |evolution | |Augustine | | | | | | |Hypatia | | | | | | |Aquinas | | | |.
| | |Anselm | | | | | | |Descartes | | | | | | |Hobbes | | | | | | |Hume | | | | | | |Kant | | | | | | |Kierkegaard | | | | | | |Conway | | | | | | |Spinoza | | | | | | |Leibniz | | | | | | |James | | |Moral |The study of ethics: The |Aristotle develops a system of |Ethical skepticism Descriptive |Plato, |What is a moral judgment? | | |nature, criteria, sources, |ethics. Roman influence: |Relativism Egoism Hedonism |Aristotle |What is morally right or wrong? | | |logic, and validity of moral |Epicureanism and stoicism ethics|Epicureanism Stoicism |Epictetus, | | | |value |become Christianized The Age of ||Augustine | | | | |Reason.
| |Hildegard, | | | | | | |Hobbes | | | | | | |Hume, | | | | | | |Kant, | | | | | | |Bentham, | | | | | | |Mill | | |Social |The study of society and its |Greek democracy Natural law |Natural Law Contractarian theory|Augustine |How should | | |institutions, including what |becomes Christianized and is |Environmental philosophy |Aquinas |goods be distributed in a | | |would make up an ideal society. |seen as the moral law of God. | |Hobbes |society? | | | |Environmental concerns Social | |Rousseau |Do people have natural rights?
| | | |justice | |Smith | | | | | | |Taylor | | | | | | |Mill | | | | | | |Moore | | | | | | |Rawls | | | | | | |Nussbaum | | |Political |The study of the state, its |Greek democracy Plato’s Republic|Democracy Constitutional Theory |Plato |What form of political state is | | |justification, and how to |Social contract Separation of |Classic Liberalism Marxism |Aristotle |best? | | |organize it ethically |power |Anarchism Libertarianism |Machiavelli |Can a government restrict the | | | | |Objectivism |Locke |liberty of its citizens?
| | | | | |Hegel | | | | | | |Marx | | | | | | |Nozick | | | | | | |Rand | | |Structuralism |The study of the rules and |Saussure applied |Semiotics |Saussure Levi-Strauss |Study of the deep structure of | | |conventions of the language and|linguistics to epistemology. | | |language | | | |Levi-Strauss applied Saussure’s | | | | | |cultural mythology that govern |methods to cultural | | | | | |large social systems. |mythology. | | | | |Deconstruction |The study of the assumptions |Derrida argued against |Free play of signifiers |Derrida |Seeks to expose assumptions about| | |about language, including the |structuralism.
| | |language and multiple meanings | | |certainty, identity, and truth | | | |Literary criticism. | | |of text. | | | | | |Eastern |The study of the philosophical |Vedic culture Travels of |Hinduism: Vedas, Upanishads |Siddhartha Gautama Buddha |Self-realization, Unity of mind | | |traditions of Hinduism, |Confucius and Lao Tzu Spread |Buddhism: Four Noble Truths, | |and | | |Buddhism, |of Buddhism from India to China |Eightfold | |Body, Harmony of man and | | |Confucianism, and Taoism.
|& Japan Spread of Islam |Path Taoism Confucianism Islamic| |environment | | | |transcendentalists embrace |philosophy | | | | | |Eastern thought Parliament of | | | | | | |World Religions begins spread of| | | | | | |Eastern thought in | | | | | | |America | | | | |Postcolonial |The synthesis of the |Colonization during the 18th and|Pan-African philosophy |Senghor |Social justice Preservation of | | |disciplines of philosophy with |19th centuries. As countries |African-American thought Latin |Hountondji |oral history and tradition | | |the |gained freedom, their thinkers |American thought |Tutu |Liberation of all peoples.
| | |indigenous cultures of Africa, |sought social | |King | | | |the Americas, and Asia. |justice and recognition. | |Hooks | | |Feminism |The study of the philosophical |First wave: Pioneers of feminism|Liberal Feminism Radical |Wollstonecraft |Equal rights | | |canon as reconstructed and | |Feminism Lesbian Feminism |Taylor |Moral theory and | | |revised to be inclusive of |Second wave: Activists from |Socialist Feminism Black |De Beauvoir |gender development issues Sexism | | |women and women’s issues.
|1960’s to 1980’s |Feminism Post-feminism |Gilligan |and language. Revisiting other | | | |Third wave: 1990s to present, | |Chodorow |schools of | | | |including younger women for whom| |Irigaray |philosophy from a feminist | | | |feminism is an established | |Kristeva |perspective. | | | |Heritage. | |Cixous | | Directions: Complete the entire matrix and then write a 350- to 500-word response for each of the following questions: • What is one example of how the global integration of cultures has affected contemporary philosophical thinking?
A manner of analyzing globalization in historical standpoint has to do with the economic and social account of global affairs, and especially with the history of past stages of speedy boost in global trade, investment, communication, and authority. There have been more than a few such instances over the past centuries that come to mind. Among is the export and investment explosions of the 1860s and the earlier part of the twentieth century are merely a couple of the more remarkable instances.
(2000) The history of these early periods, and of the institutions with which they were connected, is of substantial contemporary attention. Nonetheless, international history has to be far more than the history of the affairs involving states in the context of their international relations, or their conflicts, or their invasions and domains. It is in excess of the history of exports and imports among countries. (2002) It is over a comparative history.
It have to be a history of affairs involving persons and customs, as well as people who belong to quite a lot of diverse cultures all together or who shift among diverse identities, modes of speech, home nations, and even nationalities. Characteristics of Globalization Globalization, has acquired considerable emotive force. Globalization has its own meaning from different individuals. For some, globalization is a process that is beneficial, i. e. a key to the future world economic development and also inevitable and irreversible.
Others regard it with hospitality even fear, believing that it increases inequality within and between nations or organizations, threatens employment and living standards and thwarts social progress. Globalization (or globalisation) in its literal sense is a social change, an increase in connections among societies and their elements due to, among others, the explosive evolution of transport and communication technologies. The term is applied to many social, cultural, commercial and economic activities.
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