Midterm infa 610 foundations of information security and assurance

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Name_________________________                                    Date____________________

·       There are 30 questions in this Exam and each question is worth 2 point

·       The exam is worth 20% of your final grade for the course.

·       For multiple choices, choose the option that best answers the question. For True/False, put either a T or an F. For short answer questions, be very brief but concise. You do not need to describe the background, just offer your contributions.

·       Please provide your answers in the Answer Table below.

·       When applicable, please provide your own examples to complement your material.

·       The exam is due on Oct 18, 11:59 US EDT. Early submission is encouraged and is welcomed. There will be a 20% penalty for every day late (less than or equal to 24 hours is considered a day) until no points are left.

·       The exam is to be of your own work and no other individuals may assist you in this effort.

·       Please put your name at the top of the document and name your file using this file naming convention: fLastMidterm.doc, e.g. the file name for me would be aGhafarianMidterm.doc

·       Please submit your work using the Midterm link in the assignment folder.

·       Use Cybercafé to post your questions about the Midterm but no questions about the questions themselves.



1.     The first step in devising security services and mechanisms is to develop a security policy.

2.     Cryptanalytic attacks try every possible key on a piece of ciphertext until an intelligible translation into plaintext is obtained.

3.     Identification is the means of establishing the validity of a claimed identity provided by a user.

4.     A user may belong to multiple groups.

5.     Security labels indicate which system entities are eligible to access certain resources.

6.     Because the responsibility for IT security is shared across the organization, there is a risk of inconsistent implementation of security and a loss of central monitoring and control.

7.     The IT security management process ends with the implementation of controls and the training of personnel.



8.     An assault on system security that derives from an intelligent act that is a deliberate attempt to evade security services and violate the security policy of a system is a(n) __________.

A.    Risk

B.    Attack

C.    Asset

D.    Vulnerability


9.     Masquerade, falsification, and repudiation are threat actions that cause __________ threat consequences.

A.    Unauthorized disclosure

B.    Disruption

C.    Deception

D.    Usurpation


10.   The purpose of a __________ is to produce a “fingerprint” of a file, message, or other block of data.

A.    Secret key

B.    Digital signature

C.    keystream

D.    hash function


11.  Combined one byte at a time with the plaintext stream using the XOR operation, a __________ is the output of the pseudorandom bit generator.

A.    keystream

B.    digital signature

C.    secure hash

D.    message authentication code


12.  Presenting or generating authentication information that corroborates the binding between the entity and the identifier is the ___________.

A.    identification step

B.    authentication step

C.    verification step

D.    corroboration step


13.  A concept that evolved out of requirements for military information security is ______ .

A.    reliable input

B.    mandatory access control

C.    open and closed policies

D.    discretionary input


14.  _________ is the granting of a right or permission to a system entity to access a system resource.

A.    Authorization

B.    Authentication

C.    Control

D.    Monitoring


15.  Which of the following is considered a primary goal of access control?

A.    Preserve confidentiality, integrity, and availability of system

B.    Insure that only valid objects can authenticate on a system

C.    Prevent unauthorized access to objects

D.    Ensure that all subjects are authenticated


16.  The advantages of the _________ approach are that it doesn’t require the expenditure of additional resources in conducting a more formal risk assessment and that the same measures can be replicated over a range of systems.

A.    Combined

B.    Informed

C.    Baseline

D.    Detailed


17.  Periodically reviewing controls to verify that they still function as intended, upgrading controls when new requirements are discovered, ensuring that changes to systems do not adversely affect the controls, and ensuring new threats or vulnerabilities have not become known are all ________ tasks.

A.    security compliance

B.    maintenance

C.   incident handling

D.    program management



18.  ISO details a model process for managing information security that comprises the following steps:  plan, do, ________, and act.


19.  _________ is sharing responsibility for the risk with a third party.


20.  With the __________ strategy a user is allowed to select their own password, but the system checks to see if the password is allowable.


21.  The __________ step is presenting or generating authentication information that corroborates the binding between the entity and the identifier.


22.  A __________ is an individual to whom a debit card is issued.


23.  The __________ functions include the following:  create a user session with a default set of active roles; add an active role to a session; delete a role from a session; and check if the session subject has permission to perform a request operation on an object.


24.  __________ Separation of Duty enables the definition of a set of mutually exclusive roles, such that if a user is assigned to one role in the set, the user may not be assigned to any other role in the set.


25.  The NIST model defines two types of role hierarchies:  general role hierarchies and ___________ hierarchies.



















Multiple choices








































26.  What are the essential ingredients of a symmetric cipher?

27.  How many keys are required for two people to communicate via a symmetric cipher?

28.  What are two common techniques used to protect a password file?

29.  Explain the difference between a simple memory card and a smart card.

30.  It was stated that the inclusion of the salt in the UNIX password scheme increases the dif-ficulty of guessing by a factor of 4096. But the salt is stored in plaintext in the same entry as the corresponding ciphertext password. Therefore, those two characters are known to the attacker and need not be guessed. Why is it asserted that the salt increases security.




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