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Peer-Reviewed Articles

Agrawal, S., Shinar, S., Cerdeira, A. S., Redman, C., & Vatish, M. (2019). Predictive performance of PlGF (placental growth factor) for screening pre-eclampsia in asymptomatic women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 
74(5), 1124-1135.

Koushki, M., Atan, N. A. D., Omidi-Ardali, H., & Tavirani, M. R. (2018). Assessment of correlation between miR-210 expression and pre-eclampsia risk: a meta-analysis. 
Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
7(1), 94.

Pittara, T., Vyrides, A., Lamnisos, D., & Giannakou, K. (2021). Pre‐eclampsia and long‐term health outcomes for mother and infant: an umbrella review. 
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
128(9), 1421-1430.

Veisani, Y., Jenabi, E., Delpisheh, A., & Khazaei, S. (2019). Angiogenic factors and the risk of pre-eclampsia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. 
International journal of reproductive biomedicine
17(1), 1.


This study demonstrates that pre-eclampsia continues to impact many women, leading to increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. It states that 2% and 10% of all pregnancies suffer from the condition. Therefore, following the increasing rates of pre-eclampsia across all the U.S. states, there is a need to consider implementing PlGF (placental growth factor) for screening and detecting the condition before it becomes severe.

This study illustrates some of the factors that clinicians can consider when testing and screening for pre-eclampsia. In this regard, the study focuses on microRNAs (miRs) as a major indicator for pre-eclampsia pathophysiology.

This study demonstrates that pre-eclampsia is a dangerous condition that impacts many pregnant women. This is because it is associated with complex disease mechanisms that can have long-term impacts on the woman.

This study proposes using soluble-soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) in predicting Pre-Eclampsia among pregnant women.

Resources Reviewed

1757 primary articles met the researcher’s inclusion criteria. However, only 40 studies fulfilled the criteria and were used in conducting the study.

Twelve studies related to miR-210 and Pre-Eclampsia were used in assessing the association between Pre-Eclampsia and miRNA.

Twenty-one articles were included in conducting the study.

The researchers identified 284 sources in their initial search. However, only 15 sources met the researchers’ criteria and were included in the study. The quality of these sources was evaluated by using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.


The study concludes that implementing PIFF screening is critical for asymptomatic pregnant women to ensure that those diagnosed with pre-eclampsia are subjected to early treatment.

The study concludes by demonstrating that miR-210, a component of microRNAs, is a vital factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. Therefore, clinicians can use it as a perfect biomarker in predicting the presence of pre-eclampsia.

This study concludes by showing that pregnant women suffering from Pre-Eclampsia are always at risk of other diseases, such as cardiovascular-related diseases, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. On the other hand, the child is likely to suffer from ADHD.

The study concludes by demonstrating that increased levels of sFlt-1 and reduced levels of PlGF can help clinicians predict Pre-Eclampsia development.

Principle findings

The study findings demonstrate that using PIGR for screening is essential in predicting whether a pregnant woman is likely to suffer from pre-eclampsia. Besides, the reviewed literature also shows that PIGF testing or screening should be conducted in the second trimester of pregnancy. In this case, screening should be conducted after 14 weeks.

The principal findings of the study of pre-eclampsia have a close association with the altered miRNA expression. For instance, the aberrant miRNA has currently been reported among pre-eclampsia patient placentas

The study finding shows that PE is associated with various diseases, such as cerebrovascular disease, cardiac disease, risk of death, fatal and non-fatal ischaemic heart disease, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

The study findings show a close relationship between sFlt-1 and placental growth factor (PlGF) in predicting the subsequent Pre-Eclampsia development. Hence, the two aspects can be used in screening for pre-eclampsia.


The relevance of this study to the project’s proposed outcomes can be attributed to the fact that the application of PIGF screening is primarily aimed at protecting women from pre-eclampsia. This would help improve the health outcomes of the pregnant, especially for those whose screening results show that they are suffering from pre-eclampsia because they can undergo early treatment to prevent disease severity.

The relevance of this study to the project’s outcome is evident from the fact that it focuses specifically on miR-210 as one of the factors associated with Pre-Eclampsia. Hence, the screening for miR-210 among Pre-Eclampsia patients is necessary to take further actions to reduce its impacts on the pregnant woman.

The relevance of this study on the project’s proposed outcomes is that it shows the need to do all the necessary testing and screening to detect Pre-Eclampsia so that pregnant women are protected from being victims of all these diseases.

The study finding is relevant for the project’s proposed outcome because it provides screening procedures that can be used to predict Pre-Eclampsia, so that appropriate intervention is taken to protect pregnant women from Pre-Eclampsia.

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