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Primary art Post. 300 words. 3/11/19

Prompt 1 of 2: How did the cult of the Virgin impact Gothic society?  How does it compare with the severity of Romanesque themes?  Use specific examples and terms in your answer and consider this video in your discussion. https://youtu.be/ReM-G9V5VrY

Prompt 2 of 2: Select one work from France and one from Italy.  How are these two works different? What influences can be seen in each work? How is each work unique and specific to its country of origin? How is each work representative of its country of origin? What are the similarities, if any? How is each work innovative?

Art Peer Responses (2): 150 word min 3/12/19

Peer 1:

The works I chose to examine are the rose window and lancets north transept in Charles Cathedral in Chartes France and the interior or the Arena Chapel in Padua Italy. These two are different in physical materials because the first is stained glass and the second is a series of frescoes. The stained glass in France is classic of the Gothic period in France and was widely used in French cathedrals of the time. Although not exclusive to the area, the stained glass window was reinvented and expanded upon, making it a staple of this era. As pointed out in our textbook, they differ from previous stained glass in that they were put in place to transmit light instead of concealing something like a wall behind (p 195). Also,the myriad of new techniques invented during this time differentiate it from any previous pieces of art. For example, different colors of glass were fused together in increase the range and intensity of color. Also, artists learned how to incorporate enamel for greater detail. Conversely, the interior of the Arena Chapel in Italy, while portraying similar scenes and characters, is decidedly solid and material in comparison to the ethereal light of stained glass. What it lacks in air delicacy it makes up for in intricacy and magnificent color. It, like the glass of the Charles Cathedral, creates the feeling of depth and increased space, but through different technique. The painter of the frescoes, Giotto Di Bondone, transformed the flat walls into three-dimensional scenes through the masterful use of shading and well-scaled background. As Gardner’s Art Through the Ages Points out, “Giotto’s innovations of depicting spacial depth and body mass could not, of course, have been possible without his management of light and shade. He shaded his figures to indicated both the direction of the light illuminating their bodies and the shadows… thereby giving the figures volume” (p 209). This style is unprecedented and would be copied in the years to come.

Kleiner, Fred S. “Gardner’s Art Through the Ages – A Concise Global History, Fourth Edition.” Cengage. 2017. Print.

Peer 2:

The cult of the Virgin Mary changed Gothic society by changing the style of art into a more gentle and significant theme instead of focusing on beauty artists started focusing on the meaning behind art and religious beliefs. They believed that beauty was only temporary while religion and their beliefs could be eternal. They started making statues and different types of art focusing less on how they looked but the meaning behind it. For example we can see this in the statuette Rottgen Pieta 1300-1325 in Gardners Art Through the Ages, “This expressed emotionalism accompanied the shift toward the representation of the human body in motion.” (pg 205). We can see that Virgin Mary is grieving over her son Jesus Christ after his death. The artist made their head larger in size to show movement in the emotion she was conveying. This is different from the past statuettes because they used to focus more on womens bodies and beauty instead of their emotions. We can also see this in Giotto Di Bondone Madonna Enthroned 1310 because everyone is giving attention to Mary while she is holding her son. We can see that they display a sense of admiration towards her because of the way they all look up to her. In Gardners Art Through the Ages, “Giottos aim was to construct a figure with substance, dimensionality, and bulk- qualities suppressed in favor of a spiritual immateriality in Byzantine and Italo-Byzantine art.” (pg 207). In both art pieces the artists try to depict emotion and deep understanding of religion more importantly.   

Kleiner, Fred S. “Gardner’s Art Through the Ages – A Concise Global History, Fourth Edition.” Cengage. 2017. Print.

Art Question: 3/13/19

Describe Mary’s role at Chartres. What demonstrates her growing importance?

(2 points for the description within the context of Chartres; 3 points for the use of terms and examples; MLA formatting required)

Primary Bio: 250 word min 3/12/19

The Y chromosome has been shrinking (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. throughout mammalian evolution, but many of its remaining genes play crucial roles beyond sex determination. Let’s discuss the implications. And keep in mind that many animal species do not even have proper sex chromosomes.

Peer Response: 150 word min. 3/13/19

The possible extinction of the Y chromosome is something I had not heard of until now. According to the article, “Reprieve for men: Y chromosome is not vanishing” this has been something that has raised eyebrows since many years ago. The same article refutes this idea stating that the chromosome is stable now and is no longer vanishing. Let’s start at the beginning. The whole idea that the chromosome was beginning to decline started in the early 1950’s. Many scientists and professionals noted that few expressed genes resided in the Y. Jennifer Graves, a geneticist at the Australian National University in Canberra, noted that the Y had been diminishing in size from early mammal lineages through primates, and predicted the male chromosome would be extinct in 10 million years. This bought the attention of many and left them wondering whether that also included the male species. Many scientists set out to test this theory. They compared complete sequences of the DNA on the chromosome in eight mammal species including opossums, bulls, rats and mice, rhesus macaque monkeys, chimpanzees and humans. Both Graves and David Page, a biologist and director of the Whitehead Institute of Biomedical Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, sees stability of the core Y genes in so many species that further losses appear unlikely. They also go on to argue that even if the Y chromosome would go extinct, males would not.

I am glad that these scientists worked so hard to prove wrong the idea that the male race might go extinct. I enjoyed reading and also the fact that people think the Y chromosome will vanish seemed interesting to me because it was something unheard of at least to me until now. 

Problem Set Questions:

1. In analyzing the base composition of a DNA sample, a student loses the information on pyrimidine content. The purine content is A = 27% and G = 23%. Using Chargaff’s rule, reconstruct the missing data and list the base composition of the DNA sample. (Include a brief explanation of how you got your results).

2. State the properties of the Watson-Crick model of DNA in the following categories:

a) number of polynucleotide chains

b) polarity (strand direction running same or opposite

c) bases on interior or exterior of molecule

d) sugar/phosphate on interior or exterior of molecule

e) which bases pair with which

f) right- or left-handed helix

3. How does DNA differ from RNA with respect to the following characteristics?

a) number of chains

b) bases used

c) sugar used

4. Make the complementary strand for the following DNA template and label both strands as 5’ to 3’ or 3’ to 5’ (hint: determine first if P = phosphate or –OH are the 5’ or 3’ end of the strand). Draw an arrow showing the direction of synthesis of the new strand. How many hydrogen bonds are in this double strand of DNA?

             Template :      P- AGGCTCG-OH

             New strand :

5. How does DNA replication occur in a precise manner to ensure that the identical genetic information is put into the new chromatid?

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