Experimental Complex Design sample essay

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An experiment involving an investigation of the effects of two or more independent variables, simultaneously, is referred to as a Complex Design. Two independent variables (IV), and one dependable variable (DV), constitutes the simplex complex design. The independent variable however, consists of two levels or conditions. The combination of independent variables included in an experiment to explain their effects on the dependent variables is referred to as Factorial Combination (Psychometrics: Complex Designs). The Complex Experimental Designs are of six types (Research Designs, 2012):

•Factorial Design
•Solomon Four Group Design
•Repeated Measures Design
•Counterbalanced Measures Design
•Matched Subjects Design
•Bayesian Probability

Pairing of one independent variable in each level with other independent variable in each level is the base for factorials combining independent variables. A factorial design is known as “2×2 design”, when the four conditions occur in an experiment (Psychometrics: Complex Designs).

Purpose of Experimental Designs

A Factorial Design helps in the examination of the overall effects of one independent variable (say, Type of Writing), together with the overall effects of the other independent variable (say, Type of Instructions), as well as the combined effects of the two independent variables. This overall effect of an independent variable in a complex design is referred to as a main effect, and the overall effect of the independent variables in a complex design is known as interaction effect.

It can be also defined as the only effect of the independent variable over the dependent variable, which makes an impression that only that variable was manipulated during the experiment. The interaction effect that occurs while the effects of an independent variable differ with regard to the level of the second independent variable (Psychometrics: Complex Designs). Either of the two independent variables could be manipulated using either independent groups design, or a repeated measures design, or both.

Benefits of Experimental Designs

The main benefit underlying the complex design involves the experimental designs for testing hypotheses. The testing hypotheses could be achieved by controlling experimental factors, for predicting or establishing a result, that is based on the dependent and independent variables. This also provides a framework for a researcher, wherein he could carry out experiments to deny or confirm certain allegations. Providing cause effect relationships, providing helpful insights and offering reliable results are some of the other key benefits of the complex designs in an experiment. Investigators and researchers get adequate control for analyzing and establishing a cause-effect relationship through the experimental design. By carrying out experiments and implementing them, the researchers could analyze and reason for the unusual occurrences. The insight that has been provided by the experimental design is helpful in providing effective results to the concerned issues.

For generating better results, the complex experimental designs provide quantitative measurement level utilization, procedures for allocation, random selection and controlled conditions, promoting high reliability of outcomes and also generating adequate results (Benefits of Experimental Design, 2012). Humanity’s search for answers about the environment, culture, behavior, reactions on gases, and a lot more, is a continuous process. To come up with an accurate analysis, scientists and researchers have to be detailed and thorough on their procedures and experiments, namely the Experimental Complex Design. An experiment starts with an argument. What needs to be clarified? This is always the first process, to have a hypothesis. The hypothesis basically is a theory. It is a suggested answer but it has no basis, this proposition comes before all testing for the validity of the argument occurs. Now that you have established your hypothesis, understanding how the experiments will be measured is important. In the Experimental Complex Design, dependent and the independent variables are always mentioned.

To comprehend, an independent variable is controlled by the person who will do the experimenting and the dependent variable is NOT manipulated. An example is the inflation rate. The independent variable can be the salary or wage of an employee while the dependent variable is the price of particular merchandise within a household which price fluctuates on a certain amount of time. (Saul McLeod, 2008) To test or confirm the hypothesis, experimentation has to occur. A series of research, documentation and interviews are done to gather data that will be used to evaluate the variables that will eventually be supported by the validity of the argument. Analyzing the information gathered, there are times that an error variable takes place. A chart with an error variable will not be relevant or useable because it simply means that there were inconsistencies on how the DEPENDENT variable was collected.

Thus, the experimentation or research has to be redone. After creating the hypothesis, gathering the data, observation, experimentation and knowing the meaning of variables, arriving to the conclusion is the final step in completing the Experimental Complex design or any scientific related questions. There may be two conclusions or answers and they are called a Null Hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis. A null hypothesis, using our example regarding the inflation rate, may sound like “the inflation rate is non-existent and the salary or wages of a normal person is enough for him to survive” while the alternative hypothesis is “fifty percent of the population during the last year is affected by the inflation rate, the other fifty is not.”

Experimental Analysis Design: 1

Established in 1972, the Abecedarian Project took place at the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center in North Carolina. Their target population was children born between 1972 and 1977 who were considered to be at high risk for development impairment (Reynolds, 2007, p.8). These risk factors included parental education status, family income, father’s involvement, and work record, single mothers, maternal or paternal cognitive disability, household composition, and ties with extended family members. The cohorts were randomly assigned to either an intensive developmental preschool educational curriculum or basic care group. The overall characteristic of the cohort included being born in poverty to mothers who had not graduated from high school, single parenthood and African-American ethnicity. It should be noted that information on the children’s background, ethnicity, and parental educational achievement are readily available during prenatal visits and in the newborn nursery. Children from both intervention and control groups received basic care, free nutritional supplements, social services, and health care.

However, the children from the intervention group received intense, high quality early child education curriculum from the first months of life until the age of five. The program consisted of cognitive and fine motor developmental activities, structured learning for social and adaptive skills, and games to promote communicative and exploration skills. After age 3, the program shifted the precursors of activities that create the foundation for learning to reading, calculating numbers, remembering songs, playing music and understanding cause and effect. The children learned in a small group setting and the day care was for 6-8 hours a day (Harris & Graham, 2007, n.p). Progress for both groups was monitored at ages 3,4,5,6.5,8,12,15 and 21 years. The difference between two groups was apparent as early as 18 months of age.

At every age of assessment from 18-54 months, the intervention group scored significantly higher on measures of cognitive development than the basic care group. These differences carried over to academic achievement and grade level success into middle childhood and adolescence: children in the intervention group had significantly higher scores on reading and math tests from age eight through 21; less than 1 in 3 of the intervention group. At the age of 21, more than 1 in 3 of the treatment group had graduated from or were enrolled in a four-year college course, compared with 1 in 7 of the control group (Brooks et al, 1984, p. 422). Another key component of the Abecedarian Project was the fact that half of each group was randomly assigned to an additional intervention program lasting from kindergarten to second grade upon school entry.

This resulted in four groups: birth second grade intervention group, early intervention only, late intervention only and neither early nor late intervention. The outcomes at the end of second grade showed that children who attended both early and continuing intervention had the highest scores on measures of intelligence and standardized achievement tests in reading and math. The early intervention group also performed better than the late intervention group. The Abecedarian Project thus demonstrated that a comprehensive early development intervention not only benefits in the children in the short term, but that its positive effects last throughout young adulthood.

Experimental Analysis Design: 2

Study by numerous authors and experimentalists proved that there is a great relationship between development of a human being and impact of parents. Is there anyone who has any idea about how human mind develops? Well, it develops mainly by experiencing the actions of parents. If the parents would not give proper attention to their children, it may take so long to get developed completely. It is true that every new generation has to adapt the conditions and parents play vital role in making them to compromise with new conditions. The transmission of values is one of the essential aspects that parents should incorporate in their children. It is completely parent’s responsibility to explain all the standards and customs of society. The psychological development of a child mainly depends upon the type of environment you are giving to your loved ones. As far as behavior of children are concerned, it also equally proportional to the behavior of parents. You can often find the disrupted psychological development of child especially in broken families.

Apart from psychological development, it also impacts the physical behavior of a child. According to government research, it has been proved that mental troubles are likely to occur to a child in a broken family. A child brought up in a single parent family is more likely to be poor at school, may suffer bad health, addiction and even fell in the hands of crime. The aggressiveness and anti-social behavior are other features that could be originated in a single parent home. One in every seven children living with step parents may create some serious behavior problems according to Government organizations. 8 percent single parent children faces emotional distress as compared to 3 percent for caring parents. According to another study, it has been found that only 55 percent of children live with their married parents.

It simply means that the rest of figure more likely to face emotional distress. It is a tragic reality that in any course of life, mothers are abused by her partner. In such a case, children could be affected as well. Anything that hurts mother in front of the child also hurts the child. Domestic violence is one of the increasing factors for the children to suffer. The child abuse rate is extremely higher in the families where mother becomes the victim of abuse by her partner.

The feeling of confusion, fear, stress and even shame appears in the mind of child when the parents being pushed, hit and yelled at each other. The domestic violence may create different kinds of emotional troubles and fear from the adults. In such a case, children can suffer from depression and other addiction problems. It is essential that domestic violence issue should be treated very seriously for the welfare of society. So, it is essential that some certain issues between the parents may originate psychological and mental problems but by taking some effective steps, this problem can be solved easily.

Experimental Analysis Design: 3

Corruption does not stick to any particular field or aspect of life. Looking around these days, it is impossible to miss out on the news regarding corrupt practices and people who take the path of corruption to get any work done. Now, why does one take the aid of this evil? On close scrutiny, the whole situation looks like a vicious circle. The system corrupts the individual who in turn corrupts the system. As the proverbial question of who came first, the chicken or the egg, similarly, it is tough to decide who, the individual or the system, is to be blamed first. Following the need to understand the basis of this practice, researchers have, over the years, used regression analysis and indices to measure corruption.On an individual level if we try to understand why one resorts to corrupt practices, we might end up with a variety of reasons. Some people see it as a means of earning extra cash above their salary. Some believe its all about power and the need to show ones “status” before another.

Some are weak enough to accept it as a way of life and believe that in order to get something done, it is best to give in to the demands of the officer rather than fight against the system. Studies were undertaken to understand the connection between the amount of government to intervention of the likes of level of import tariffs or civil service wages and corruption in the implementation of these policies. Ades and Di Tella (1995) believe that corruption is an offshoot of industrial policies since a part of GDP measured as subsidies to manufacturing have been observed to be correlated to corruption indices.

It is not easy to quantify something that does not have a clear definition and which is inherently illegal and conducted under secrecy. Indices such as the “Corruption Perceptions Index” (CPI) were formulated in 1995 to statistically determine corruption. But these only evaluated the public perception of the extent of the problem. Although it was not as accurate as one might have wished for, but indeed, it was a beginning step in the direction to curb this social evil. As a social bane, corruption needs to be uprooted from the base itself. Children must be encouraged to question any wrong doings they find happening in the society. Having a generation that understands this aspect ensures that there will be a future that is not corrupted and which will work for the betterment of all.

REFERENCES:
1. Psychometrics: Complex Design. (n.d.) Psychometrics. Retrieved from http://www.psychmet.com/id10.html 2. Research Designs. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.experiment-resources.com/research-designs.html 3. Benefits of Experimental Design. (2012). Retrieved from http://benefitof.net/benefits-of-experimental-design/ 4. Saul Mcleod, (2008), Independent, In Dependent and Extraneous Variables. Retrieved July 22, 2012, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/variables.html 5. Reynolds, C. R (2007) Encyclopedia of Special Education, John Wiley & Sons 6. Harris, Y .R, Graham, J.A (2007) The African American Child, Springer Publishing Company 7. Brooks, P. H, Sperber. R, McCauley, C (1984) Learning and Cognition in the Mentally retarded, Routledge

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