Exponential growth in petrol and diesel fueled vehicles are responsible for deterioration of air quality in cities. Because of the increase in urbanization, industrialization and commercial activities in the urban areas, the demand for transport has also been increased. In addition to it the use of personal vehicles has also increase steadily. The various principle pollutants emit from vehicles are as follows- Carbon monoxide (CO) Suspended particulate matter (SPM) Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) Hydrocarbons (HC) Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
2005 Air Toxic Emissions from On-road Mobile Sources (Tox-weighted) Affects of Automobile Pollution 1. In India about 15-20 million people are asthmatic because of emission of automobile pollution. 2. N02 is a highly toxic gas and attacks the lungs causing lung cancer and emphysema. 3. Automobile pollutants interferes the development and functioning of the nervous system. 4. Some diseases such as bronchitis, plurosis occur by long-term exposure to the particulate matter. 5. N02 reacts with hydrocarbons and creates photochemical smog.
Reasons for Automobile Pollution The petrol driven vehicles emit invisible gases such as CO and Benzene while diesel driven vehicles emit mainly black smog containing minute carbon particles and S02. The main reasons for vehicular pollution problems are as follows- 1. Poor quality of fuel 2. Outdated vehicles 3. Congestion and mixed traffic of different types 4. Lack of proper traffic management Important Pre-requisites for Controlling Vehicular Pollution 1. Phasing out of grossly polluted vehicles 2. Enforcement of emission norms for new and in-use vehicles.
3. Improvement in automobile technology 4. Reduction of lead content in motor fuel 5. Stream lining traffic management 6. Improvement in public transport system 7. Fuel quality improvement and switch over to cleaner fuel 8. Restriction on indiscriminate growth of urban centers, industrial and commercial activities Alternative Fuels Hydrogen Gas: It can be used in modified combustion engines and is eco-friendly as it emits water vapours only. Electric Vehicles: They are advantageous over conventional fueled vehicles as far as environment is concerned.
Ethanol: It can be used in regular automobiles after blending with petrol. It is rather clean fuel with low nitrogen oxide and hydrocarbons emission and no net C02 emission. Methanol: It is a liquid fuel and is produce from coal, natural gas and biomass. ft emits very little NOx and HC. Natural gas: It exists in the gaseous state at normal temperature and pressure and is found in the form of CNG and LPG. It causes substantially lower pollution without affecting the performance of the vehicles.
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