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Vaughn & Michael (1982) 

1. What is the problem that Vaugh & Michael identify in the introduction? What do they suggest as a possible solution/explanation?

2. State the 3 examples of positive automatically reinforced behavior given by Vaugh and Michael. Select one and briefly explain how it demonstrates/meets the definition of automatic reinforcement?

3. Give an example of automatic punishment (summarize the authors’ or give your own). 


Toussaint and Tiger (2012)

4. *Critical refresher: Describe how a DRO conducted? (*required components for understanding this article)

5. *Critical refresher: Describe how a VMDRO is conducted?

6. What were the overall results of the intervention? Was VMDRO successful? Why would this be important information; especially in regard to treating automatically maintained behavior? 


van Haaren (2015) 

7. * Critical refresher: Define the reflexive conditioned motivating operation (CMO-R)

8.  (Putting it all together): Now describe how the two factor theory of avoidance and the CMO-R can be used to describe the process where self-stimulation, stereotypy, and some instances of SIB can be automatically negatively reinforced 

9. Discuss the three suggestions van Haaren gives to increase the effectiveness of instruction and decrease the likelihood that it will take on aversive properties. 

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