9-2 final project: submission | Psychology homework help

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Research Article Summary

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Research Article Summary

A. Classic study chosen:

Zimbardo, P. G. (2007). Revisiting the Stanford prison experiment: A lesson in the power of situation. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 53(30), B6–B7. https://www.proquest.com/docview/214660796?accountid=3783&parentSessionId=s4PjKwhL8HOuala3OnNABJX2b1S%2BFvBLk8ppmNBDaCc%3D

1. Research question or hypothesis

The primary question was whether the situation itself, rather than inherent personality traits or moral values, would be the dominant factor in shaping the participants’ actions and reactions within the prison setting.

2. Literature Review

Philip Zimbardo references several key studies in social psychology that laid the groundwork for the Stanford prison experiment. These studies include research on group dynamics, which demonstrated how groups could influence individuals’ beliefs and behaviors, as well as Stanley Milgram’s obedience experiments, which illustrated the power of authority figures in commanding compliance. Zimbardo also alludes to an experiment on anonymity and aggression, showing that situational factors could significantly impact behavior. Collectively, this literature review challenged the prevailing notion that inner traits alone determined behavior, emphasizing the role of situational pressures in shaping human conduct instead. This existing body of research provided the background for Zimbardo’s exploration of the impact of situational factors on behavior in his own study.

3. Methodology

The research entailed randomly assigning college learners to the roles of convicts or guards in a fake jail environment set up in “Stanford’s psychology department’s basement.” The participants were initially physically and mentally healthy, and they were paid to participate. The experiment aimed to observe how these roles and the simulated prison setting would affect their behavior.

4. Results

The study revealed that situational factors, including power dynamics, anonymity, and dehumanization, played a significant role in transforming the behavior of participants. Guards became increasingly abusive, and prisoners exhibited extreme stress and compliance. The experiment was terminated after only six days due to the severe and unethical behaviors observed.

5. Conclusion

Zimbardo concluded that the power of the situation could lead individuals to engage in behavior that contradicts their personal values and moral upbringing. He emphasized the need to consider situational factors when understanding human behavior and highlighted the ethical implications of such research.

B. Current Article Chosen

Zia, M. Q., Naveed, M., Bashir, M. A., & Shamsi, A. F. (2020). The interaction of situational factors on individual factors and self-development. European Journal of Training and Development, 44(4/5), 509–530. https://doi.org/10.1108/ejtd-10-2019-0172

1. Research question or hypothesis

This research explored three questions, i.e., “how do individual and situational factors combine to influence self-development?; How do situational factors impact the relationship between individual factors and self-development?; What are the relationships among job autonomy, empowering environment, learning goal orientation (LGO), proactive personality, and self-development?”

2. Literature review

The literature review in the article discusses the evolution of self-development in the modern workplace, emphasizing the shift towards learner-centered perspectives and the increasing role of technology in facilitating self-driven learning. It underscores the cost-effectiveness and efficiency of informal learning programs compared to formal ones. The review also stresses the growing importance of self-development initiatives for organizational success, citing examples of organizations allocating budgets for employee self-development. Additionally, it mentions that voluntary participation in training activities often leads to more effective learning outcomes, further emphasizing the relevance of “self-development” in contemporary workplaces. The review sets the stage for the study’s exploration of “individual and situational factors influencing self-development” behavior.

3. Methodology

Information was collected from two hundred and eighty middle managers in banking industries. The study used partial least squares structural equation modeling to investigate the direct and indirect relationships between personal and situational factors and self-development.

4. Results

The study found out that; “individual factors i.e., “LGO and proactive personality” and situational factors i.e., “empowering environment and job autonomy” have significant direct relationships with self-development.” It also found that an “empowering environment moderates the relationship between LGO and self-development, and that job autonomy moderates the relationship between proactive personality and self-development.”

5. Conclusions

The research concluded that organizations can enhance “self-development” by providing an “empowering environment” and “job autonomy” to their staff. Employees who are provided with these situational factors are more likely to engage in self-development activities, emphasizing their significance in promoting “voluntary” and “active involvement” in self-development behavior.

References

Zia, M. Q., Naveed, M., Bashir, M. A., & Shamsi, A. F. (2020). The interaction of situational factors on individual factors and self-development. European Journal of Training and Development, 44(4/5), 509–530. https://doi.org/10.1108/ejtd-10-2019-0172

Zimbardo, P. G. (2007). Revisiting the Stanford prison experiment: A lesson in the power of situation. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 53(30), B6–B7. https://www.proquest.com/docview/214660796?accountid=3783&parentSessionId=s4PjKwhL8HOuala3OnNABJX2b1S%2BFvBLk8ppmNBDaCc%3D

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